Frank Nicholson: The Nazca Line Enigma
The Nazca Lines /ˈnæzkɑː/ are a group of very large geoglyphs made in the soil of the Nazca Desert in southern Peru. They were created between 500 BC and AD 500 by people making depressions or shallow incisions in the desert floor, removing pebbles and leaving differently colored dirt exposed. In the years leading up to 2020, between 80 and 100 new figures had been found with the use of drones, and archaeologists believe that there are more to be found.
Most lines run straight across the landscape, but there are also figurative designs of animals and plants. The individual figurative geoglyph designs measure between 400 and 1,100 metres (440–1,200 yd) across. The combined length of all the lines is over 1,300 km (800 mi), and the group covers an area of about 50 km2 (19 sq mi). The lines are typically 10 to 15 cm (4–6 in) deep. They were made by removing the top layer of reddish-brown iron oxide-coated pebbles to reveal a yellow-grey subsoil. The width of the lines varies considerably, but over half are slightly over 33 cm (13 in) wide. In some places they may be only 30 cm (12 in) wide, and in others reach 1.8 m (6 ft) wide.
Some of the Nazca lines form shapes that are best seen from the air (at around 500 m [1,600 ft]), though they are also visible from the surrounding foothills and other high places. The shapes are usually made from one continuous line. The largest ones are about 370 m (400 yd) long. Because of its isolation and the dry, windless, stable climate of the plateau, the lines have mostly been preserved naturally. Extremely rare changes in weather may temporarily alter the general designs. As of 2012, the lines are said to have been deteriorating because of an influx of squatters inhabiting the lands.
The Nazca Group
Frank Maglione Nicholson (concept development, graphics)
Ken Phungrasamee (concept development, graphics)
David Grimason (concept development/computer programming)
Manolis Sechopoulos (research/PR)
Chelsea and Nathan Johnson (media)